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François-Joseph Gossec:
"Le Tyrtée de la Révolution" -
the official composer of the French Revolution

"It is his requiem and the symphonies that make Gossec deserve a place equal to Haydn and Mozart in the history of European music. However, his consistent revolutionary and republican conviction that made him set the ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity into notes, and that he preserved until his old age, lets him appear just like Beethoven as an humanist in music, whose opus - just like a torch - shines the light of that great age of humankind's awakening into our times."

- from the edition: François-Joseph Gossec: Requiem - Grande Messe des Morts, edited by Wolfgang Kiess and Thomas Mersich, published by Heinz Anderle, dedicated to Hartmut Krones, Professor of musicology, Vienna 1999

Background music: Gossec's "Hymne à l'Être Suprème" (June 8, 1794 - 20 Prairal II), composed for the Festival of the Supreme Being. The score (windband, solo, choir and additional piano reduction) can be downloaded as a PDF file, viewed, printed and performed.


From the late baroque to the romantic era, Gossec's life spans three historical periods of European music. But Gossec is one of the most classical, enlightened, and revolutionary characters, a counter-figure to his Viennese contemporary Josef Haydn. Both of peasant origin, and Haydn himself a paradigm of civic and artistic self-emancipation in the age of enlightenment, Gossec took from the beginning an active part through the ten years of the French Revolution.

Gossec, whose family name was also written Gaussé, Gossé, Gosset or Gossez, was born in 1734 in the village of Vergnies in the then French, since 1814 Belgian province Hainaut, and apparantly attracted attention for his musical talent already as a young boy. His musical education started at the age of six at the churches of Walcourt and Maubeuge, and his first teacher Jean Vanderbelen taught him the violin, keyboard, harmony and composition. In 1742 further studies under André-Joseph Blavier confounded his skills while serving as a chorister at the cathedral of Antwerp. From these days on, having left the environs of his birthplace, he would never see his parents, brothers and sisters again, not even when finally traveling from Antwerp to Paris nine years later, or during his opera tour to liberated Belgium in winter 1792/1793.

In 1751 Gossec arrived in Paris with a letter of recommendation to Jean-Phillippe Rameau, then director of the orchestra of the patron of the arts and general renter (fermier général, the wealthy men who credited the state money in advance and collected the taxes afterwards) Le Riche de la Pouplinière. Rameau, the great master of French Baroque music, was famous for his noble and sober style, for his theoretical works, and for his masterhood in harmony and polyphony, but after Rameau's death, the new kapellmeister Jan Antonin Stamic effected a practically total change of taste within only one season (1754 - 1755): homophonic orchestral symphonies and impressive dynamic effects typical for the Mannheim school as well as the prominent role of woodwind instruments such as the new clarinet made the music understandable both for the kenner and the liebhaber.

In 1758 Gossec married Marie-Elisabeth Georges, herself a singer (it is uncertain that he already had traveled with her from Antwerp to Paris in 1751). Their son, Alexandre-François-Joseph, was baptized on December 29, 1760. The marriage can be assumed to have been quite fortunate, although in their first years they did not always very well; Gossec, himself a rather financially disinterested musician, enjoyed nevertheless to live a modest, but comfortable life. The son, whose education Gossec was probably not very much committed to, turned out to be a rascal.

Gossec composed chamber music and symphonies and had the first six ones published as op. 3 in 1756, before Haydn; but the 25 year-old composer apparently intended to make his breaktrough by a masterpiece of titanic dimensions. It is unknown for what occasion he composed his one and a half-hour requiem, but, in a strange parallel to Count Walsegg-Stuppach, who ordered a requiem for his wife deceased at the age of 20 from Mozart in 1791, it is not unlikely that Louis-Joseph de Bourbon commissioned a funeral mass both for his daughter Marie, who had passed away one year before at the age of four, and his beloved wife, Elisabeth, who had died on March 9, 1760, at the age of 23. Its premiere in May 1760 at the Jacobine church of the Rue St.-Jacques, made him famous overnight.

In 1763 and 1766, the young Mozart visited Paris and might have met Gossec; already in 1762, Gossec had entered service for the Bourbon nobility, between 1762 and 1769 for Louis-Joseph de Bourbon, Prince of Condé, and from 1766 for Louis-François de Bourbon, Prince of Conti. Most of Gossec's compositions for the stage had moderate success because of weak libretti, and Grétry and later Gluck dominated in this field. But as the director of the Concert des Amateurs between 1769 and 1773 and of the Concerts Spirituels between 1773 and 1777 he was given all possibilities to present and conduct his own symphonic masterpieces as well as those by his contemporaries. In 1773, a Haydn symphony was played for the first time in Paris. From 1777 to 1778, Mozart traveled via Mannheim to Paris, and unsuccessfully tried to settle there. He met Gossec again in spring/summer 1778, mentioning him to his father as "a very good friend and a very dry man." And it was not only the requiem that impressed Mozart, but also Gossec's symphonies for the concerts spirituels; of Gossec's D-major symphony Brook 83 (1777?) the final movement begins with the same theme as the final movement of Mozart's symphony in C KV 338, and the symphony in D Brook 86 published in 1776 has a strikingly similar opening theme to Mozart's Haffner symphony (W. Kiess, T. Mersich, text notes to our edition of the four concert spirituel symphonies).

Gossec's Te Deum from 1779 is the next milestone of his career: A successor to the throne was expected, since the queen Marie-Antoinette finally had become pregnant after her phlegmatic and unskillful husband finally had agreed to that kind of surgery enabling him to fulfill his marital duties. Instead, theigh daughter Marie-Therèse Charlotte was born, who later in 1815/1816, after Napoléon's final defeat during the "restoration", expelled the revolutionaries from France and the revolutionary composers at least from their posts.

In 1780, Gossec had his requiem published in score by Henry, and among the subscribers there was also the Viennese librarian and collector of ancient music, Baron van Swieten, patron of Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven. But as an artist, Gossec felt frustrated: In the genres of the comic and the serious opera (opéra comique, tragédie lyrique), Grétry and Gluck, resp., were the unanimously recognized masters; Haydn's symphonies, which Gossec himself had introduced to the French audience, exceeded his own ones by far in popularity, and the common opinion was that only the "Germans" (in fact the Austrians Haydn, Mozart, and Pleyel, the Czechs Stamitz brothers, Kozeluch, or Wanhal, or Johann Christian Bach), and some "Italians" (Cambini, Boccherini, Viotti) could succeed in the genres of "pure" instrumental music, the symphony and the string quartet. Gossec was about to resign as composer; his output decreased, and he had doubts about his future, as he wrote in 1778: "...my hair grows white, my hopes vanish, and my courage is dampened".  The career steps of Gossec's employment as an assistant director of the opera from 1780 and music director from 1782 (fortunately, he had been rescued one year before by his fellow-composer Pierre Joseph Candeille during a fire) were followed by his appointment as director of the Royal Singing Academy (Ecole Royale du Chant) in 1784 (but only after Gluck's rival Piccinni had declined it). During this not remarkably prolific years, Gossec's musical output focused mainly on operas or stage music, he wrote only four symphonies in the 1780s. But these last years of the Ancien Regime saw on the horizon the brightening dusk of a new era.

A hitherto little known portrait of Gossec, not mentioned in the bigraphies, and definitely
one of the best. From the style it may be attributed to Jacques-Louis David, from the time
to about 1789, but in lack of any information, these assumptions must remain speculative.

On July 14, 1789, enraged citizens on the search for arms stormed and took the hated medieval prison of the Bastille. The third estate's deputies, declaring themselves to be - as the newly-formed national assembly - the only legitimate representatives of the nation, abolished all privileges of the nobility and the clergy on August 4 and passed the declaration of human rights (Declaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen) on August 26, 1789 - the greatest achievement ever in the history of humankind.

St. Martin des Champs in Paris - today the museum of science and technology
(at least at this place triumphant over ignorance and delusion) (18. Nov. 2001)


A second chance of a career in the service of light and liberty

Gossec's requiem was the first music to be used for the revolution: On August 6, 1789, it was performed to the memory of the dead of the Bastille siege for the "brothers who died for the defense of the homeland" from the district of St. Martin-des-Champs, and in the same month another two times, on August 22 at the church of St.-Laurent "for the honour of the citizens who died for the common interest" (with a collection by La Fayette), and on August 31 at the church of Ste.-Marguerite (fortunately, the royal court music superintendent Giroust or the former dismissed music master of Notre Dame Lesueur couldn't be commissioned to compose the usual occasional music for political reasons). The requiem was also realized at the church of St. Phillipe du Roule for the "dead (martyrs of liberty) of the Bastille" and as late as in 1792, on June 18, 1792, for the general Gouvion at the churche of the Petits-Peres. Gossec became - in rank second only to captain Bernard Sarrette - lieutenant and co-director of the music corps of the newly founded National Guard. Already on September 27, his "military symphonies" (lost) were performed at the consecration of the National Guard`s flags at Notre-Dame cathedral. One year later, for the federation ceremony on the Champ de Mars on July 14, 1790, to be celebrated by Talleyrand, Gossec composed a Te Deum for male chorus and wind band. His funeral march from September 1790 became one of the standard pieces of the revolution, and among the music for the translation of Voltaire's remains to the Pantheon in 1791, his Deist hymn "L'Invocation" is one of the most wonderful examples of sacred music. The entire masterpiece can be downloaded in score, piano reduction (public domain), and orchestral parts for performance, together with the other music composed for this event, the "Hymne à Voltaire" sung before Voltaire's home and the "Peuple eveille-toi", sung before the Theatre de la Nation. Also included is Pleyel's "Hymne à la Liberté" composed for the celebration of the constitution accepted by the king Louis XVIII and conducted by Pleyel himself at the Place des Armes at Strasbourg on September 25, 1791.

His congenial partner, the poet Marie-Joseph Chénier, wrote most of the lyrics, and also the libretto for the revolutionary opera "Le triomphe de la Républiqué". Gossec composed and arranged more than 40 revolutionary hymns and marches, and two stage works. He set the Marseillaise composed by Rouget de Lisle for wind band and wrote at least two wind symphonies, one in F with three movements, the other one as a re-orchestration of the first movement of a C-major orchestral symphony (Brook 85). A free music school was established in 1792 for talented musicians in the National Guard. One year later this music school was converted into an National Institute of Music, and for additional goverment support and nationwide distribution of revolutionary music, the Magasin de Musique à l'Usàge des Fêtes Nationales was created in 1794.

Marie-Joseph Chénier, official poet of the French Revolution

Originally it was intended to publish monthly a volume of revolutionary music by Gossec, Méhul, Cherubini, Catel, Le Sueur and others, but the political changes and financial troubles lead to the cancellation of the series after 12 volumes and continuation of publishing only in single issues. However, in 1795 the Conservatoire was founded with the revolutionary composers teaching and supervising as inspectors. Gossec was one of the five inspectors, professor of composition from the beginning and also heaped plenty of honours: he was appointed member of the Académie Française in 1795, of the Royal Swedish Music Academy in 1799, and named Cheválier de la Légion d'honneur in 1804.

After 1800, Gossec focused mainly on teaching, but in 1809 he finished his Symphonie à 17 parties, already sketched in 1792, by adding a minuet-fugue as the third movement. This symphony, of which the autograph is still extant, had apparently never been performed in the concerts of the Conservatoire. In 1813 he composed a great mass, the Denière Messe des Vivants, presumably a patriotic "Missa in angustiis" with its "Domine salvum fac imperatorem", because Napoleon's empire obviously had begun to crumble and apparently not been conquered to last forever, but the restoration and return of the Bourbon kings was also not a very pleasant perspective. In 1814, Gossec abridged his requiem (this version was performed at the first anniversary of Grétry's death), and a third Te Deum from 1817 (if ever completed) was his last composition. Apparently he had made his peace with the Creator.

With Napoleon's final defeat in 1815, the conservatoire had been temporarily closed by the Bourbon king Louis XVIII in 1816, and Gossec had to retire and to leave his official residence. His wife had died in 1801, and he had lost contact to his ill-begotten son (as already mentioned, Gossec, was not so much a man of family and had devoted virtually his entire life and energy to his music). Gossec living on pensions from the Institut National, the Legion of Honors, and the Conservatoire, still attended the sessions of the Académie until 1820, and at home he welcomed his former colleagues and students, Sarrette, Méhul (who died in 1817), Catel, and Panseron. Both the latter sang during their visits to their old professor again and again his Hymn to the Supreme Being ... for more than ten years!

Bernard Sarrette, Gossec's captain and friend Charles-Simon Catel, Gossec's favourite student

Gossec apparently did not intend to publish his last masterpieces (they were found in his assets after his death), and so he practically fell into oblivion. A decline in his mental capacities, especially in his memory, led to his misconception of choruses from Haydn's creation for his own compositions at one of Gossec's last public appearances in 1823 - a strange parallel to Haydn attending the creation in the old university in Vienna in 1808. Sarrette convinced Gossec and his housekeepers, the Anceaumes, to move to the then Parisian suburb of Passy. Gossec died on February 16, 1829, at the age of 95 years. On February 19, his former colleagues Cherubini, Berton, and Catel attended the funeral service (Panseron had composed a Pie Jesu) at the church of Passy, and, except for Catel, who was himself very ill, accompanied him on his last way to the Père Lachaise cemetery. The procession went through the same places in Paris, where Gossec had performed his music at the revolutionary processions for Mirabeau and Voltaire in 1791, or at the ceremonies in 1792, 1793, and 1794... At the grave, the Belgian musicologist Fétis held the funeral sermon. Gossec's remains rest until today at the Père Lachaise cemetery in Paris, near those of Méhul and Grétry.

Gossec's modest tomb, decorated with flowers by the author
(15. Nov. 2001)
The Panthéon in Paris - a hall of eternal fame Gossec would
truly deserve (18. Nov. 2001)

Gossec's music should not be reused for the revolution of 1830, and for the one of 1848, only his revolutionary opera "The offering to freedom - l'offrande à la Liberté" was revived. Some of his revolutionary works were rediscovered in the last decade of the 19th century, and the "la chasse" hunt symphony played again in 1902.


After all the similarities to his contemporary Haydn, what makes the difference? We must not forget that Haydn's London symphonies, that made Haydn the then most famous and also a wealthy composer, were written in a perfect and elegant style for the pleasure of a wealthy and aristocratic English audience in high-priced concert halls; and that his parlor-freemasons from the 1780s converted into super-reactionists of the 1790s unfortunately succeeded in convincing him to convert an original Croatian folk tune "Zalostna Zarucnice" (The Sad Bride) into a popular hymn: Haydn's anti-marseillaise "Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser" later to be adapted by the German poet, anti-semite and anti-French nationalist Hoffmann von Fallersleben for his Deutschlandlied, stands for all the anti-enligthened obscurity of the 19th and early 20th century, for aggressive German nationalism as well as for simple-minded Habsburg obstinacy.

In the 1790s, Gossec himself was a lieutenant of the music corps of the National Guard with a modest salary, but he composed with a highly ethical intent his music for public ceremonies accessible free to everyone. Although the revolution's most respected composer, and a true republican and ardent revolutionary, both the months of Robespierre's paranoid terror before and the anti-jacobine political revenge after the 9th Thermidor II (July 27, 1794) meant also a diffuse threat to him: Gossec's opera "Emile, or the revenged innocence" on a text by C. Desmoulins remained unfinished with the decapitation of the Dantonists on April 5, 1794; later Gossec and M.-J. Chenier (who had fallen into Robespierre's disgrace for his anti-despotic play "Timoleon", forbidden by Robespierre) were denounced as Girondists, and Sarrette was even arrested; and Gossec's first version of his Hymn to the Supreme Being to Chenier's lyrics was refused by Robespierre himself (most probably because it was too demanding to be sung by amateur choristers). Gossec simplified the composition to a "popular version" on lyrics by Desorgues, which is nevertheless one of the most beautiful and affectionate masterpieces of sacred music (download this version as a PDF file).

Immediately after Robespierre's overthrow Gossec abstined from the political life, but two weeks later he resumed to compose for the revolutionary ceremonies. In the same extent as the revolution consolidated and lost its drive, he cut back his musical contribution. However, he never wrote Bonapartist or royalist opuscles, instead, his last Symphonie à 17 parties (1792/1809), completed for the 20th anniversary of the Bastille storm, proves that he did not lose his ideals even through Napoleon's Empire: the final movement's character of this symphony could not be more revolutionary, the finale reminds us of a round dance around the Tree of Liberty, quoting the "Ça ira" (by Bécourt, 1790) at the end!

Gossec's biographer Dufrane judges Gossec to be the only genuine and thorough revolutionary and democratic composer of the French Revolution. "The day will come when this (Gossec's) tomb will be visited with respect", H. Radiguer wrote in 1931 in his volume (about the revolutionary and Napoleonic era 1789 - 1814) of the "Encyclopédie de la Musique". And - once "the music has regained the place it deserved in Paris", we may see the day when Gossec would finally find his truly deserved eternal rest in the Panthéon "aux grands hommes la patrie reconnaisante".


medaillon
Icono- and bibliography

A handful of portraits of are known, and all the ink drawings of the younger Gossec before the revolution have survived as a collage on a page of a manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France. Two late portrait engravings show Gossec in his last years, one by Queneday (1808), the other by Boilly (1820). The medaillon engraving by Gaucher (shown here) dates from 1790. The oil portrait at the top of the page (cropped) and shown in greyscale in entirety by Vestier was originally exhibited already at the Salon of 1791, and both the funeral march and the Te Deum are depicted. However, it is assumed from the uniform that Vestier updated it after 1795 or even 1801. The ink drawing by David? appears to depict a man younger than the Vestier painting. Portraits in the Musée de la Musique in Paris can be viewed here (enter Gossec in the search fields), an undated marble bust is also extant.
For more than half a century, the most actual biography has been the pocket book by Jacques-Gabriel Prod'homme: "F.-J. Gossec: l'homme, l'oeuvre, l'artiste" , Paris 1949 (!). A more comprehensively researched and detailed biography has been written in 1927 by Louis Dufrane: "Gossec, sa vie, ses oeuvres", Paris and Brussels 1927. Most of Gossec's revolutionary works have been listed in detail by Constant Pierre in his catalogue "Les hymnes et les chansons de la Révolution", Paris 1904, the revolutionary performances by Julien Tiersot in the monography "Les fêtes et chants de la révolution française", Paris 1908, and Gossec's career as "Tyrtée de la Révolution" has been the subject for Fernand Tonnard, "F.-J. Gossec, musicien hennuyer de la révolution française", Brussels 1938. A more recent study of highest importance for the updating of the library signatures is the book "Band music of the French Revolution" by David Whitwell, Tutzing 1979.
The University of Brussels has (quite) recently issued a study "Fêtes et musiques de la révolution - Grétry et Gossec", Brussels 1990, with the facsimile of the portrait collage. A comparison of the careers of "M.-J. Chénier and F.-J. Gossec: two artists in the service of revolutionary propaganda" by Jean-Louis Jam is a chapter in the conference proceedings book "Music and the French Revolution", edited by Malcolm Boyd, Cambridge 1992. Only in 2000, the final and most comprehensive biography with a complete catalogue of Gossec's works, the Role-Hénin (RH) catalogue, has been issued: "François-Joseph Gossec, 1734-1829. Un musicien à Paris de l'Ancien Régime à Charles X.", Paris 2000, by Claude Role of the Center of Baroque Music at Versailles



La "Grande Messe des Morts" - a prototype funeral and symphonic mass

It is the merit of the Viennese musicologist Hartmut Krones to have identified Gossec's requiem as a model for Mozart in "Ein Französisches Vorbild für Mozarts Requiem", Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 1/1987. Gossec's requiem is a milestone in the history of music just as J. S. Bach's b minor mass or Beethoven's Missa Solemnis and definitely a must for every academic library.

Gossec divided the latin requiem text into 25 movements. He omitted the Kyrie and some strophes of the sequence. The  requiem is scored in a very progressive style for the full classical orchestra, but trumpets and trombones play only in the Tuba Mirum. There, they form together with the clarinets and horns doubling the trumpets (and as reported bassoons presumably doubling the tenor and the bass trombones) a second remote orchestra. The fortissimo entry calling for the Last Judgement was the most remarkable and overwhelming effect noted by the listeners. Some arias are clearly operatic, such as the Exaudi or the Inter Oves for the soprano, or the Spera in Deo for the tenor. Nevertheless, Gossec showed also his skills in counterpoint by his great choral fugues, the Et Lux Perpetua and the Amen fugue.

The orchestration is in general early classical with the strings only in most movements; the use of clarinets in 1760 was still new, but the most remarkable progress compared to the baroque period is the orchestral bass part. Although indicated as "Basse continue", there is no figuration for an organ accompaniment. And Gossec's requiem is definitely a symphonic one, profiting from a large orchestra and a choir of corresponding size. It remained for more than 50 years a standard in this genre and still in 1814 it was played for the anniversary of Gretry's funeral. But it is very remarkable that with Napoleon's defeat of 1814/1815, Gossec's revolutionary requiem had been replaced by the royalist opuscule of his former fellow colleague, the turncoat Cherubini, who became the musical busybody of the last Bourbon kings...

It seems that the very extensive composition had not been performed atliest before the first publication in its entirety. The first performance in may 1760 in the Jacobine church in the Rue St. Jacques lacked the offertory. The second performance at the then carmelite church in the Luxembourg quarter had theoffertory, and was definitely a symphonic one not for liturgical purpose. The next realizations took place in may 1763 in the Feullants' church in the Rue St. Honoré, and here again in july 1769. On march 22, 1777 Gossec had it given for the memory of his friend, the violinist Simon Le duc. 1783 records two performances, and 1784 one on December 15 with 200 musicians. The Dies Irae soon became standard repertory of  the Concerts Spirituels already in 1761 and 1762, and again three times in 1773, when Gossec himself had become the director.

Gossec's requiem served as model not only for Mozart, but also for Berlioz, and although not played any more through the romantic period it was still noted for its noble simplicity and perfection. But the first performance in the era of modern musicology took place at a Dutch-Flemish music festival in Berlin in 1911 (!), and two decades later it could be heard at the Würzburg Mozart festival (Germany) in 1932. One can hardly imagine that in Vienna, the musical heart of Europe around 1800, where Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and Schubert lived, this famous masterpiece was not performed before 1992 - and even then only the first 18 movements!

Among the extant sources we have used both the original score edition from 1780 and a manuscript score copy preserved at the Bibliotheque Nationale de France in Paris. The autograph at the Bibliothèque Royale in Brussels dates from Gossec's own revision in 1814 and appears to have been a working copy more than a definite version. Five recordings have been issued, the original version by Koch-Schwann on a double CD (313041, Liège radio symphony orchestra on modern instruments, with the Symphonie à Dix-Sept Parties, but no more available), a terribly mutilated version - without the fugues, to be squeezed onto a single CD - by Capriccio (10616, Capella Coloniensis on period instruments, not available in Europe), and the abridged version (????) by Erato (CD 2292-45284-2, Musica Polyphonica on period instruments). The Naxos recording (double CD 8.554.750-751, Orchestra della Svizzera Italiana on modern instruments, with the Symphonie à Dix-Sept Parties) skips the 24th movement, the Lux Aeterna (and you may find some possible inspirations of the booklet text in this page). The most recent recording (2002, issued in 2003) has been again performed by a period instrument orchestra in fact as a live recording (K617151/2 HM 76X2) and is quite recommendable for that (and especially for its booklet), but in the Lux Aeterna either the haut-contre soloist or the conductor has apparently been inattentive towards his entry in measure 127...


Table of movements:

I. Introduzione (orchestral): Grave, C major, ¢, 69 measures

II. Introitus (choir, orch.): Grave, c minor, ¢, 35 m.

III. Te Decet Hymnus (soprano, alto, choir, orch.): Allegro moderato, E flat maj., ¢, 161 m.

IV. Exaudi (soprano, orch.): Largo, f min., 3/4, 93 m.

V. Requiem Aeternam (choir, orch.): Grave, C maj., ¢, 14 m

VI. Fuga: Lux Perpetua (choir, orch.): ---, c min., ¢, 159 m.

Sequentia:

VII. Dies Irae (soprano, alto, tenor, basso, orch.): Grave maestoso, g min., ¢, 87 m.

VIII. Tuba Mirum (bariton, cuivres ex dist., orch.): Grave - Allegretto, E flat maj., ¢, 153 m.

IX. Mors Stupebit (choir, orch.): Allegro, C maj., ¢, 159 m.

X. Quid Sum Miser (alto, orch.): Lento, F maj., 4/4, 27 m.

XI. Recordare (soprano, alto, basso, orch.): Largo, f min., ¢, 96 m.

XII. Inter Oves (soprano, orch.): Allegretto, F maj., 3/4, 170 m.

XIIa. (orch.): Grave, C maj., c, 5 m.

XIII. Confutatis (choir, orch.): Allegro molto, g min., c, 131 m.

XIV. Oro Supplex (choir, orch.): Grave, E flat maj., ¢, 16 m.

XV. Lacrimosa (soprano, mezzo-soprano, orch.): --- (Grave), f min., 3/4, 83 m.

XVI. Iudicandus (choir, orch.): Grave, B flat maj., ¢, 17 m.

XVII. Pie Jesu / Amen (fugue) (choir, orch.): Andante, g min., ¢, 40 + 150 m.

Offertorium:

XVIII. Vado Et Non Revertar (recitativo: tenor, orch.): Largo, c min., ¢, 67 m.

XIX. Spera In Deo (tenor, orch.): Largo, E flat maj., 4/4, 102 m.

XX. Cedant Hostes (alto, basso, orch.): Allegro, C maj., 6/4, 172 m.

XXI. Sanctus (choir, orch.): Maestoso, F maj., ¢, 15 m. 212

XXII. Pie Jesu (soprano, alto, tenor, basso/choir, orch.): Largo, F maj., 4/4, 60 m.

XXIII. Agnus Dei (choir, orch.): Moderato, c min., ¢, 33 m.

XXIV. Post Communionem (choir, orch.): Allegretto, C maj., ¢, 175 m.

XXV. Requiem Aeternam - Fuga: Et Lux Perpetua (choir, orch.): Grave, c min. // ---, C maj., c // ¢, 11 + 226 m.


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For a Gossec biography IN GERMAN, have a look at this page: http://www.revolution.historicum.net/biographien/gossec.html

© 1999 - 2007 by Dr. Heinz Anderle. Reproduction, translation, and mirroring permitted only with quotation/link to the original source and date of accession. Updated November 24 ,2007